Monday, April 3, 2017

Spring freezes and fruit trees

Peach bloom April 1, 2017
A recent look showed peaches in full bloom in Denver during a week in which night temperatures are expected to drop to the mid to low twenties F.

Spring freezes during bloom are the biggest concern for home fruit growers.

While a dry March had few cold nights, April is shaping up to have much more variable weather. This includes rain/snow storms followed by cold nights due to radiational cooling after storms pass and skies clear.

USDA Hardiness Zone 6 or better yet Zone 7 (Colorado's West Slope) are better areas to grow peaches than Zone 5 Denver. While there are Zone 5 peaches, many backyard growers don't hunt for and plant them.

Yellow Delicious apple
bloom April 1, 2017
Peaches aren't the only trees with blossoms out now. This Yellow Delicious apple tree is well on its way to having flowers out during this week's expected cold nights. Yellow Delicious is a medium chill apple (600 to 700 chilling hours), fireblight susceptible and not on my list of recommended varieties for the Front Range.

Honeycrisp is a medium to high chill apple (800 to 1000 chill hours) that is more fireblight resistant and on my recommended variety list. As you can see in the photo, it breaks bud later than Yellow Delicious.

Honeycrisp apple branch
March 30, 2017
What can you do with a tree in bloom when frost is expected? Homeowners with young (short) or dwarf trees can throw a plastic cover over them and use a heat source underneath. While there may be some heat in the ground to trap after a warm March, you will have to supplement as soils aren't that warm yet.

Lights with old-style incandescent bulbs or any bulbs that produce heat will work. Do be mindful of fire safety when using lights under covered trees and remove tarps the following morning to avoid overheating trees on sunny days.

See the CSU Extension Garden Note 722 "Frost Protection and Extending the Growing Season" section on Lights for Addtional Heat for a description of using plastic covers and Christmas lights for warmth. Does anyone have another favorite way to provide supplemental warmth under a covered fruit tree that they want to share?

Photo credit: All photos Carl Wilson

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